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Forget juice cleanses and detox diets. Yes, you can actually train your body to eat itself — and, believe it or not, you want it to. Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanisms. DOI: In one study on mice, researchers found that autophagy protected against: He C, et al. Exercise-induced BCL2—regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis.

Another study from that year showed how a lack of autophagy can be harmful. Researchers found that removing the autophagy gene in mice caused weight gain, lethargy, higher cholesterol, and impaired brain function. Loss of autophagy in pro-opiomelanocortin neurons perturbs axon growth and causes metabolic dysregulation. As is often the caseshort-term discomfort can bring long-term benefits.

48 hour fast autophagy

The idea is to reduce carbohydrates to such low levels that the body has no choice but to use fat as a fuel source. This is the magic behind the wildly popular ketogenic diet. Keto diets are high in fat and low in carbs steak, bacon, and peanut butter shakes are a bonus for the keto crowd.

Between 60 and 70 percent of your overall calories come from fat. Being in ketosis can help people lose body fat while retaining muscle. Paoli A, et al.

Beyond weight loss: A review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets.

The Profound Benefits of Fasting (and Autophagy)

In fact, in a study, rats fed a keto diet had less brain damage during seizures. Wang B-H, et al. Ketogenic diet attenuates neuronal injury via autophagy and mitochondrial pathways in pentylenetetrazol-kindled seizures. If staying in ketosis sounds too hard, take heart. A study noted similar benefits in people who followed a diet in which no more than 30 percent of their overall calories came from carbs, Champ says. Draznin B.

Note: Anyone with health issues, especially kidney or liver problems, should talk to a doctor before beginning a keto diet. Skipping meals is another stressful act that the body may not immediately love but ultimately benefits from.

48 hour fast autophagy

Research has shown there are loads of positives to an occasional fast. One research review found that intermittent fasting and autophagy can make cancer treatments more effective while protecting normal cells and reducing side effects. Antunes F, et al.

Autophagy and intermittent fasting: The connection for cancer therapy? Li L, et al. Chronic intermittent fasting improves cognitive functions and brain structures in mice.Juliette Kando is a dancer, choreologist, author on fitness and health, and Fellow of the Benesh Institute at the Royal Academy of Dance. A healthy lifestyle combined with Autophagy and Water Fasting natural cell regeneration performed now help to lose weight for good and to avoid, or at least diminish the aches and pains that may occur later in life.

Many of you may have heard of an autophagy inclusive diet, perhaps even consider trying it but don't know whether it's safe or what it will be like. What ever your current lifestyle may be, this article hopes to help you overcome certain doubts and fears. In addition, the questions and comments at the end will help you decide wether taking an autophagy with water fasting plunge is the right decision for you.

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It just means that during the absence of external nutrition as in fasting the body uses its internal existing resources like fat for fuel. In addition it is a process that removes accumulated debris from cells and regenerates them to a healthy state.

In other words, when a cell is clogged up and no longer works very well, autophagy comes along, cleans it up but keeps the good molecules for damage repair. Then the cell is good to go for a prolonged period of service. This applies to any type of cell from brain cells, heart cells, skin cells, lung and liver cells, in short, any type of cell in the body.

It has always been my policy to cure myself of any aches and pains with good real food.

48 hour fast autophagy

Food is my medicine, including specific herbs and spices with a daily intake of:. All this has lead me to adopt a lifestyle that never requires doctors, pharmaceutical products or artificial vitamin supplements - unless in an emergency of course, like maybe having a tooth repaired.

The only times I have ever stayed in a hospital was when I had my tonsils removed at age 8 which was in those days in fashion, and to deliver 2 of my three children, one being a home birth. One could say that I am a good candidate for healthy, reasonably painless ageing. In addition, my ankles were swollen, my sense of balance started to diminish when putting shoes on, and my stamina began to feel rather weak when climbing stairs. So after some thorough research and talking to people who fast regularly I was pleased to find what might be a very simple answer to my concerns: autophagy and water fasting.

This article shares my research, my experience and the results of the experiment. So what exactly is autophagy? Autophagy begins to function when glycogen is depleted in the liver.

Glycogen consists of carbohydrate glucose molecules that serve as a form of energy storage in the body. Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and in muscles.

The unique effects of multi-day prolonged fasts (requires more than 48 hours) - Valter Longo

It provides the body with a readily available source of energy. As soon as blood glucose levels decrease, the rate of autophagy cell repair peaks. This begins at between the first 12 to 16 hours of fasting. I weighed myself before going to sleep on the eve of the beginning of the fasting period at Then I continued to weigh myself at the same time every 24 hours to determine daily weight loss.

This resulted in the following:. I have been advised by more experienced fasters to eat something that is easily digestible when deciding to start eating again. So I opted for a small bowl of oats porridge cooked with water instead of milk sprinkled with a little salt and fresh cranberries.

Tuesday Silly me, following my daily garlic routine, instead of merely rubbing the garlic onto the toasted bread, I bite straight into it, helping it go down with cafe con leche coffee with milk.

My friends arrive. Half an hour into the journey on curvy bumpy roads I am car sick, which I have never been before. Standing by the roadside I get violently sick, watching huge pieces of raw garlic glittering in the sunshine.

After a fast the digestive system is nicely cleaned out and very delicate. It needs to be treated gently, with respect. Apart from the mistake I made this morning in breaking the fast with raw garlic, the results are:.

So all in all I am very happy with the results of my water fast. It was not at all difficult to do.Disruption of autophagy—a key homeostatic process in which cytosolic components are degraded and recycled through lysosomes—can cause neurodegeneration in tissue culture and in vivo.

Upregulation of this pathway may be neuroprotective, and much effort is being invested in developing drugs that cross the blood brain barrier and increase neuronal autophagy. One well-recognized way of inducing autophagy is by food restriction, which upregulates autophagy in many organs including the liver; but current dogma holds that the brain escapes this effect, perhaps because it is a metabolically privileged site.

Here, we have re-evaluated this tenet using a novel approach that allows us to detect, enumerate and characterize autophagosomes in vivo.

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We first validate the approach by showing that it allows the identification and characterization of autophagosomes in the livers of food-restricted mice. We use the method to identify constitutive autophagosomes in cortical neurons and Purkinje cells, and we show that short-term fasting leads to a dramatic upregulation in neuronal autophagy. The increased neuronal autophagy is revealed by changes in autophagosome abundance and characteristics, and by diminished neuronal mTOR activity in vivo, demonstrated by a reduction in levels of phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein in Purkinje cells.

The increased abundance of autophagosomes in Purkinje cells was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Our data lead us to speculate that sporadic fasting might represent a simple, safe and inexpensive means to promote this potentially therapeutic neuronal response. Autophagy is a key homeostatic mechanism whose physiological importance is reflected by its preservation throughout the eukaryotic phylogenetic tree, from yeast to mammals. In recent years, autophagy has been recognized as a crucial defense mechanism against malignancy, infection and neurodegenerative diseases.

Herein we provide evidence to support the notion that the desired physiological goal may be attained by a simple, safe and inexpensive alternative approach: short-term food restriction.

Studies in yeast, and in tissue culture, have contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular events that are involved in autophagy and its regulation. However, it has been difficult to observe the process in intact organs and tissues, and most especially in the brain. For example, to facilitate the identification and analysis of autophagy in vivo, a transgenic mouse has been generated 1011 that encodes a fusion between GFP and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 LC3.

The lipidated form of LC3 specifically associates with autophagosomes 12 and this protein is, currently, the most widely used marker of autophagy in mammalian cells. It is well known that food restriction induces autophagy in many organs and tissues, 910 but autophagy has not previously been detected in the brain even after 48 hours of food restriction; because of this, it has been proposed that the brain is metabolically privileged 1314 and that a more severe insult—e.

We show that this approach identifies autophagosomes at a resolution that allows them to be not only enumerated, but also characterized in some detail. In addition, we have used a standard approach—transmission electron microscopy TEM —to confirm the increased abundance of autophagosomes in neurons of food-restricted mice. Our data demonstrate that, contrary to current dogma, food restriction causes a rapid and profound upregulation of autophagy in the brain.

Six- to seven-week old male GFP-LC3 mice were food-restricted for 24 or 48 hours, a process known to induce fatty change and autophagy in the liver. These mice, and non-food-restricted control mice, were euthanized with PBS perfusion and vibratome sections of liver and brain were prepared and stained as described in Experimental Procedures.

Confocal images were captured and analyzed.Fasting for 48 hours is not what I expected. For those who pay any attention to health trends, they will know that fasting is on top or near the top of the list of ways said to improve your health. Now before you go and try fasting yourself you should a talk to your doctor and b read about types of fasting.

There are many types of fasting, some short, some very long, some with no food, some with only certain types of food, some with only liquids and many types of spiritual or religious fasting. A very popular type of fasting now is intermittent fasting IM. If 16 hours is too much, many people can manage 12 hours since a large part of that is likely sleep. Stop eating around 7pm, start the next at 7am.

One often cited benefit many people see from intermittent fasting is weight loss. I certainly experienced this. What I was really after by fasting however was intra-cellular autophagy. The benefit of this in theory: slowing down aging. Aging cells no longer function like they did when we are young and that shows up as all the aging we see at a macro level in our bodies.

So cleaning cells of poorly functioning parts can slow aging. Jason Fung, a fellow Canadian does a great job of summarizing fasting and autophagy in this article. If you read enough though about fasting though you eventually read that longer fasts can in theory increase autophagy much more.

48 hour fast autophagy

I will caveat this with most extensive long fast studies seem to be animal based, but we all share many of the same systems which make fasting beneficial. Also I recommend doing it while you have some relaxed easy days with little planned. I started my 48 hours on a Thursday night.

My last meal was finished around 7pm Thursday night. At this point everything is easy. You eat dinner, relax and go to bed. When you wake up nothing is different from any other day. I drank a lot of water in the morning and had black coffee.

In short I stuck to zero calories. By lunch I was starting to get hungry, but as I did all day, I drank quite a bit of water. I drank filtered water. Keto diets are also very popular at the minute.

They are basically higher fat, lower carb diets which cause your body to use ketones for energy instead of glucose.

There are many proposed benefits and some risks of this which are well summarized it this article. By late afternoon I went from being hungry but not distracted by it, to being quite focused on my hunger. By the evening I basically resorted to lying on the sofa and watching movies.

Even standing up made me feel momentarily faint. Eventually I went to bed. I had previously gone only 24 hours without food. This may be the first time in my life I went more than 24 hours without eating. One side effect of fasting can be insomnia. I slept, but not as well as a normal night. I slept solidly for around 4—5 hours and then another 1 or 2 while tossing and turning.

I was very hungry when I went to bed but not as much during the night.This article is about autophagy and fasting. There are many reasons why people do intermittent fasting, starting from weight loss and ending with convenience.

Although restricting your eating window within a certain time frame makes it very easy to create a caloric deficit, using IF for fat loss is just the superficial benefit. Autophagy is a natural process by which our cells disassemble and remove their dysfunctional components [i]. Autophagy puts you into a catabolic state, which breaks down your own tissue, as opposed to an anabolic one, which is about building up.

When you trigger autophagy, you allow the organelles of your healthy cells to hunt out dead or diseased cells and then eat them. The autophagosome then dissolves the sick cell or the toxic protein and creates energy. MTOR inhibits autophagy because it makes your body grow, which requires conserving energy and upregulating the metabolism, whereas AMPK supports autophagy due to the energy deprived state.

Nutrient starvation allows unneeded proteins to be broken down and recycled into amino acids that are essential for survival [vii] [viii].

Research has shown that consuming fewer calories prolong your lifespan. This is a very important point — it means just going on a weight loss diet while not allowing autophagy to do its work will actually be bad for your longevity and health. Long-term caloric restriction leads to micronutrient deficiencies and more oxidative stress.

The reason you get kicked out of autophagy, even when eating fewer calories, is eating too frequently. If you consume protein or carbohydrates, you trigger mTOR. Even as little as 50 calories or just 2 grams of leucine will shift you from a fasted state into a fed one and makes you suppress autophagy [x].

Live Your Journey

You would be better off by consuming no calories at all and doing intermittent fasting, rather than breaking your fast with a small amount of calories and stopping autophagy. If not daily then at least periodically throughout the week. As these fuel sensors drop, autophagy rises. I tried searching for an answer in studies but it seems there is no clear answer to this. Autophagy happens in varying degrees in varying tissues. You would have to be in a mild ketotic state with depleted liver glycogen to let these processes take place.

This can happen already within hours. However, this is a very mild response and autophagy starts to really ramp up after the first 48 hours. Here are a few ways of doing intermittent fasting for getting autophagy and improving your health.

As you can see, stress and self-destruction are needed for your body to maintain its healthy functioning. Check out my book Metabolic Autophagy that teaches you everything about it. Lamb, T. Yoshimori, and S. Russell, H. Yuan, and K. Siim Land is an author, content creator, public speaker, coach, and biohacker. He talks about human optimization, optimal nutrition, and peak performance.I posted on FB about a 48 hour fast that I did, and a fried asked me for a bit more detail, so I decided to write this blog.

Basically, of all the things I do for health, it had the most profound impact of anything I have tried in the past 1. I realized just how much eating close to bedtime can disrupt sleep. My average wake-up time shifted back 2. I also briefly discuss the hormone leptin, and how you cannot become overweight if you are leptin sensitive. One must be leptin resistant to eat enough to become overweight and to be unable to burn off these excess fat stores.

By using the Leptin Reset Protocol mentioned here to become leptin sensitive, we can begin to burn our own fat for energy throughout the day rather than eating 3 meals and many snacks, as most today need to due to damaged mitochondria that cannot burn fat.

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Because there are few people in my life who see the world the way that I do, I jump on the chance to visit a friend like him. Three hours of driving feels like just a drive down the street for friends like these. Whenever we woke up, I had a habit of going to the kitchen to pound a high-protein breakfast to help kickstart my metabolism and circadian rhythm for the day. If you look around in any developed nation, you can see that the vast majority of people are leptin resistant.

What does this mean? Basically, when fat cells make leptin and send it to the leptin receptor in the brain, that receptor is not functioning properly, therefore unable to receive the leptin signal from fat cells and carry out the next steps, which include telling the body to stop eating or to eat more, and to increase metabolic activity in fat cells to burn off excess fat during sleep. Yup, but we can only do it if leptin is functioning properly.

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All mammals humans included also naturally burn fat to create heat anytime it is cold outside, but most never do this due to the use of clothing, houses, and heating. Because if you are leptin sensitivethe body is able to burn its own fat stores without exercise.

The discovery of the hormone leptin and uncoupling proteins fat-burning proteins in mitochondria completely shattered this theory because it introduced another clear variable with which the original theory cannot work.

More simply put: If one person eats a 2, calorie meal I do, all the timethey might use the energy to build muscle, be energized, and then burn it off as fat throughout the day. If we are leptin sensitive, it is very, very difficult to gain weight, because our body naturally suppresses our appetite, and is able to burn off any excess fat as heat with leptin and uncoupling proteins in mitochondria while we sleep. Wild animals naturally gain weight at the end of the summer in order to prepare for winter, however this is the only time when we naturally put on weight.

How does leptin resistance occur? If we are not, then it is a massive problem for a living organism. No other living organisms are able to alter their local environment to an extent close to that of humans. As you come to understand this science well, you will begin to understand why humans and the pets that we force into our environments are the only animals on earth that end up with non-communicable disease, meaning that they are caused by dysfunction of the bodyrather than by a virus or bacteria.

So, if you are leptin resistant, fasting is definitely not wise because you cannot tap into your fat stores. Not only will you feel like shit, but it may lead to some unintended negative health consequences.

However, since I have become leptin sensitive, I continued eating lots and lots, out of habit and as a way to distract my mind. My friend noticed these habitual, not-necessarily-constructive patterns in my eating so he challenged me to fast for 48 hours. I thought it would be easy so I accepted the challenge. I drove home from my final day in New York and went to my neighbors for a big dinner of grass-fed sausage from a local farm and baked potato cubes, with a healthy touch of Mendoza Malbec.

It was magnificent. As that hunger came around in the afternoon, I knew it would come, but I resisted it and kept going.Remember me This is not recommended for shared computers. Sign in anonymously Don't add me to the active users list. Posted 16 May - PM. I've been scouring the internet to find any kind of definitive answer and the only hint I can find is 36 hours in a Jason Fung interview. Does anyone know at which point during a water fast that mTOR is deactivated in response to zero protein and autophagy begins?

Posted 17 May - AM. There's no real answer to this. Autophagy is engaged to varying degrees in varying tissues even over the course of a normal day with an 8 h overnight fast. Here's what it looks like in mouse liver remember, or know ye, that mice are active in the dark and sleep in the day, so invert the pattern you see here :.

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Figure 1. Rhythmic induction of autophagy in the liver. Mice tend to either max out autophagy at 24 hours of fasting, or slightly increase it, or return to baseline at Figure 7.

This is all macro autophagy, by the way: the circadian rhythms of micro-chaperone-mediated, and mitophagy doubtless all follow a different pattern see wikipedia if this is gibberish. To get a sense of the human time-course, you'd have to either have transgenic humans expressing fluorescent tags upon expression of key autophagy-induced genes, or have people willing to undergo repeat biopsies over the course of your time period of interest and be able to take account of the artifactual effects of these injuries.

Thought these mouse data could be of more use to humans if they also showed when their livers ran out of glycogen. I don't want to read too much into your choice of words, but you seem here to be buying into the notion widespread in Paleo circles that autophagy is initiated in the liver and muscle after glycogen is depleted.

Rather, autophagic degradation of glycogen granules is itself an important function of autophagy. Sure, but the rotation of the Earth is the same.

I don't disagree that there will be time-course differences due to differences in metabolic rate, residual energy reserves, and other things, but a key driver is the circadian rhythm, and that's 24 hours for nearly? I'm sure "autophagic degradation of glycogen granules" is not the kind of autophagy that interests Nate here. He wants to know when real! And it's natural to assume that that kind of autophagy will start well after your last meal is fully utilized and liver glycogen is depleted.

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